There are many aspects of composition. The most popular include the rule of thirds, lines that repeat, geometric shapes, and s-curves. Each of these by design leads the viewers eye into the scene, to the subject, and then out of frame. The amount and use of negative space varies as to the subject and environment, but it is the over balance and flow that causes people to pause and really take in a photograph.
In the image above, the clouds in the background are balanced with the swirly water in the foreground. The lava in the foreground balances with the lava flow in the background. The lava flows along the left repeat and help guide the eyes through the image. The swirling water in the foreground leads the eye to the far right and out of frame.
The clouds in the center are balanced by the water in the foreground. There are plan trees on the left as well as the right. The lava on the left, is repeated by the flow in the middle, and again beyond the palm trees. The water in the foreground draws the eye into the scene and lead the viewer to the splash in the mid ground. The clouds continue that line and draw the viewer out of frame. The san on the left and right side ads a nice balance to finish the composition.